Where diamond is found
Where diamond is found? Most people, when they hear the term “gemstone,” immediately think of diamonds, which are well-known for their propensity to shine very attractively when exposed to light. The ancient Greeks had the belief that diamonds were fragments of stars that had somehow made their way to Earth.
Prior to the 15th century, only monarchs were permitted to wear diamonds; but, in 1477, the diamond began to play a new role in society. The Archduke Maximilian of Austria gave a ring including a diamond that he had set into Mary, Duchess of Burgundy. This action is credited with being the origin of the practice of offering a diamond as a pledge for marriage.
Even though they often include inclusions of other minerals and are a great light refractor, diamonds are comprised of crystalline forms of pure carbon and are arranged in a crystal structure.
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Diamonds are almost always transparent, despite the fact that they may be other colors as well, such as pink, yellow, or even blue.
On the Mohs scale, diamonds have a rating of 10 for hardness (from 1 – 10). Because of this, diamond is the hardest natural mineral that can be found on Earth. The melting point of the diamond is 4000 degrees Celsius, which is much higher than the melting point of steel by a factor of 2.5.
Diamond has been used since the early 1900s to grind and shape exceedingly hard metal alloys, such as tungsten carbide, in preparation for their usage as the tips of machine tools.
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Diamond polishing powders and compounds are used for the purpose of achieving exquisite finishes on optical surfaces, jewel bearings, wire drawing dies, cutting tools, aviation engine components, and a wide variety of other products produced from metals, ceramics, plastics, and glass.
In the exploration and production of oil, gas, and minerals, as well as in masonry drilling and concrete test sampling, diamond grit and powder-impregnated rock drilling bits are utilized. Additionally, these tools are utilized in foundation testing for dams, buildings, and other types of construction.
In addition to cutting roads and grooves in airport runways, concrete, construction stone, bricks, and forms for furnace linings, circular metal saw discs with a diamond-impregnated edge are utilized in several other applications as well.
Diamond machine tools are used in the electrical and engineering sectors, including the automobile, aerospace, and maritime construction industries. In order to slice fragile metals and crystals for use in electronics, very thin saw blades that have been treated with diamond are utilized. “Steels” that have been treated with diamond powder may be used to sharpen knives that are kept in the house.
It’s possible that ancient people used diamonds as talismans or lucky charms. This would have been the diamond’s earliest usage. The ancient civilizations of Egypt, Babylon, Mesopotamia, and India all placed great value on diamonds as precious gemstones.
Diamonds were introduced to China by the Romans, where they were used to cut jade and drill pearls. Diamonds were also used to carve cameos out of stone. As a sign of their riches and status, monarchs, queens, and other aristocrats often wore large diamonds in their jewelry.
The Regent diamond was discovered in India in the year 1701 and finally became a part of the Crown Jewels of France. However, it was taken during the French Revolution and later used to adorn the hilt of Napoleon’s sword.
Records dating back 3,000 years in India show that diamonds were employed for two purposes: first, as a decorative element, and second, as talismans to ward off evil or grant protection when engaged in combat. In 327 BC, Alexander the Great was the first person to bring diamonds from India to Europe.
Diamonds were first misidentified as “strange pebbles” when they were discovered in Brazil in 1725 by alluvial gold miners. Subsequent analysis confirmed the stones’ identity as diamonds.
The mining of diamonds from hard rock sources began in 1869 at Kimberley, which is the capital of the Northern Cape Province in South Africa. Alluvial diamonds were found in South Africa in the year 1859.
Frederick Wells, who was the manager of the Premier Diamond Mine in South Africa at the time, was the one who made the discovery of the world’s largest and most valuable diamond in 1905. He was walking along the edge of the open pit mine when he saw something glimmering in the sunlight.
He pulled out his pocket knife and fished it out of the ground. He discovered a diamond crystal that was the size of his fist, which was more than three times bigger than the largest diamond that had ever been discovered. It had a weight of 3,106 metric carats, which is equivalent to around 620 grams, and it was flawless, colorless, and clear.
After Thomas Cullinan, who established the Premier Diamond Mining Company, it came to be known as the Cullinan Diamond. The government of Transvaal purchased it and gave it to King Edward VII on the occasion of his 66th birthday.
After that, in 1908, the cutting of the diamond was transferred to the renowned House of Asscher in Amsterdam. Asscher worriedly spent a good deal of time over the course of many weeks pondering how to cut the stone. In the event that his calculations were off, the valuable diamond may be shattered into a million pieces! However, it was cleft flawlessly into 105 faceted diamonds when it was cut.
The Cullinan I, which is mounted in the British Royal Scepter, is the biggest of these precious stones. The Cullinan II may be found near the bottom of the Imperial State Crown that represents Britain.
Both of these items are kept at the Tower of London, which also houses the rest of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom.
Diamonds may be found in nature, although they are very uncommon when compared to other types of minerals. It is believed that diamond crystallizes between 150 and 200 kilometers below the surface of the Earth, at temperatures between 1050 and 1200 degrees Celsius and pressures between 45 and 55 kilobars. This is the ideal environment for the formation of diamonds.
The diamonds may then be taken up by a hot molten rock, sometimes known as magma, and carried upwards as the magma penetrates further and farther into the crust of the Earth.
These incursions take the shape of thin, cylindrical structures that are referred to as “pipes,” and only a very tiny percentage of them contain considerable amounts of a diamond.
Diamonds that have been freed as a result of the erosion of pipes may collect in alluvial deposits. Because of their extreme hardness, diamonds are able to withstand repeated instances of erosion and deposition, which explains why they may be discovered so far from their original location.
Gem, near gem, industrial, and baroque are the four basic categories that may be used to classify the grade of a diamond. In very rare instances, ninety percent of the diamonds in a deposit are of gem grade; nonetheless, the vast majority of economic deposits include twenty percent to forty percent gem-quality diamonds.
Multiple nations are responsible for the production of significant amounts of synthetic diamonds of industrial quality. Diamonds of gem quality can also be manufactured. this is a possibility.
To make a diamond of gem grade weighing one carat (200 milligrams), which requires polishing, around 250 tons of ore need to be extracted from the ground. Both open-cut and underground mining methods are used in diamond mines. After being blasted with explosives, the ore is put onto trucks and sent to a processing factory, where it is cleaned and sorted after it has been sorted.
In the beginning, diamond ore was extracted from Argyle by the use of large-scale open-pit mining. The mine is currently primarily an underground block cave operation on a massive scale.
The bits of broken ore is crushed until they are less than or equal to 18 millimeters in size. Any diamonds that were greater than 18 millimeters in size were shattered.
Due to the fact that statistical sampling reveals they are both highly rare and of low grade, the extraction of these enormous diamonds is not economically viable.
Crushed ore is washed in big spinning drums known as scrubbers, and then it is fed through vibrating, double-decked, slotted screens that have a gentle slope. These screens separate the ore into three different size fractions.